[300], The number 2 reactor at Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant was shut down automatically. 7 issued 03/11/2011 at 3:39 am PST", "$1.2M FEMA Tsunami Grant To Ore.'s Curry County – Oregon – Northwest News Story – KTVZ Bend", "PNG's Wewak hospital damaged by tsunami waves", Tsunami damage estimate for Hawaii now tens of millions, "Tsunami washes away feathered victims west of Hawaii", "South Pacific islands hit by tsunami swells", Tsunami Warning For Guam Extended Until 11 p.m, Minor damage in Latin America by Japan's tsunami, Más de 200 casas dañadas dejó seguidilla de olas, Caldera: 80 viviendas resultaron destruidas en Puerto Viejo por efecto de las olas, Más de 200 casas dañadas dejó seguidilla de olas que azotaron las costas chilenas, "Gareth Morgan's Galapagos hotel destroyed by tsunami", "Ecuador Sends Aid To Galapagos After Islands Hit By Tsunami From Japan", Tsunami Aftermath in Galapagos: Update from CDRS' Director Dr. J. Gabriel Lopez, "Japan tsunami caused icebergs to break off in Antarctica", "Antarctic ice-shelf calving triggered by the Honshu (Japan) earthquake and tsunami, March 2011", Japan tsunami victim's soccer ball found in Alaska, "Tsunami motorcycle owner located in Japan", "Quake Shifted Japan; Towns Now Flood at High Tide", "東日本大震災における震災関連死の死者数(平成29年3月31日現在)[平成29年6月30日公表]", 平成23年(2011年)東北地方太平洋沖地震(東日本大震災)の被害状況(平成29年9月1日現在), Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, "Fukushima evacuation has killed more than earthquake and tsunami, survey says", "Stress-induced deaths in Fukushima top those from 2011 natural disasters", "Japan earthquake: 100,000 children displaced, says charity", Grandparents stifle grief to raise orphaned boy, Tōhoku teen feels guilt of being lone survivor, 378 students killed, 158 missing in disaster, 3/11 tsunami killed 35% of students 'saved' by parents, School that lost 70% of its pupils mourns, "Japan confirms death of 19 foreigners in March 11 quake, tsunami", "Quebec priest killed in Japanese tsunami", "Google Person Finder for Japan Earthquake/Tsunami launched", "As Tsunami Robbed Life, It Also Robs Rite of Death", "Japan earthquake: country begins burying dead in mass graves", "Burials in Quake-Hit Towns Deepen Japan's Tragedy", "Takashi Shimokawara, 104, a victim of Japanese tsunami", International Association of Athletics Federations, Illness, suicides drive up disaster-linked toll, Disaster reconstruction work has claimed 18 lives so far, "California tsunami death: NorCal man drowns trying to photograph tsunami – KSWB", "Man swept out to sea by tsunami was Bend native", "Klamath tsunami victim identified; search comes up empty", "film shown by BBC showing only rubble where there were buildings", "Before-and-after satellite photographs of devastated regions", "animated images showing undamaged places become damaged", "Seawalls Offered Little Protection Against Tsunami's Crushing Waves", Debris removal, recycling daunting, piecemeal labor, Applications to deregister cars lost in tsunami soar, "Status of Japanese ports 5 days after devastating quake and tsunami", Iwate fisheries continue struggle to recover, "Tokyo Disneyland hit by liquefaction after quake", "Japan issues top tsunami warning after major quake", "Dam Breaks in Northeast Japan, Washes Away Homes", "Death toll from powerful Japan quake likely to top 1,000", "A quick report on Japanese Dams after the Earthquake", "Quake-hit Japan battles to avert radiation leak", "Japanese Quake Forces Evacuation Near Nuclear Reactor; Oil Refinery Burns", "Power Outage To Deal Further Blows To Industrial Output", "東京電力ホームページ – エネルギーの最適サービスを通じてゆたかで快適な環境の実現に貢献します –", A legacy from the 1800s leaves Tokyo facing blackouts, One certainty in the crisis: Power will be at a premium, Auto industry agrees to adopt weekend work shifts, "Setsuden Poised to Replace Nuclear Power in Japan ", "Japan's shipping, energy sectors begin march back from quake", "After 8.9 quake, explosion hits pchem complex in Japan", Japan earthquake causes oil refinery inferno, "LPG Tanks Fire Extinguished at Chiba Refinery (5th Update) | COSMO OIL Co., Ltd", Fires, safety checks take out Japanese refineries, Japanese refiners try to offset shortages, "JX refinery fire seen originated from shipping facility", Analysis – Oil markets adjust to Japan's disaster, Tsunami Disaster: "Japan's Sendai says LNG Infrastructure Badly Damaged", "Eastern Japan paralyzed by unprecedented earthquake", "Japan earthquake: Evacuations ordered as fears grow of radiation leak at nuclear plant; News.com.au", "Japan initiates emergency protocol after earthquake", "Japan's nuclear fears intensify at two Fukushima power stations", Japan Earthquake: More Nuclear Plants Lose Power, "Nuke plant near quake epicenter undamaged", "Japan nuclear plant disaster: warning of an 'apocalypse’ as fallout hits danger levels,", "Analysis: A month on, Japan nuclear crisis still scarring,", "Nuclear Power in Japan | Japanese Nuclear Energy – World Nuclear Association", "Japan Declares 'Nuclear Emergency' after Quake", "High radiation in Japanese nuclear plant", "Radioactive Material May Have Leaked from Japanese Reactor", Partial Meltdowns Presumed at Crippled Reactors, Japan quake: With two natural disasters and a nuclear emergency, recovery begins, Sixth Japanese nuclear reactor loses cooling, "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):福島市内の水道水から放射性物質検出 国の基準は下回る – 東日本大震災", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):福島の土壌から微量ストロンチウム 水溶性の放射性物質 – 社会", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):原発から40キロの土壌、高濃度セシウム 半減期30年 – 東日本大震災", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):東京・神奈川含む汚染マップ公表 一部で1万ベクレル超 – 東日本大震災", "Food Contamination Set to Rise as Japan Fights Radiation Crisis at Reactor", "High level of caesium detected in sand lances", "Radioactive Meat Sold in Japan Market – Health News Story – KTVZ Bend", "Fire at Tōhoku Elec Onagawa nuclear plant -Kyodo | Reuters", "Fire at nuclear power plant extinguished", "March 2011 Japan's atomic plant neighbours mull leaving homes", Japanese nuclear plants' operator scrambles to avert meltdowns, "Sea water injected into troubled Fukushima power plant | The Manila Bulletin Newspaper Online", "Cooling system pump stops at Tokai No.2 plant-Kyodo; Energy & Oil; Reuters", "Tokai No.2 nuke plant cooling process working – operator | Reuters", "Highway to Japan Quake Area Opens as Casualties Pass 25,000", "Many Rail Services in Tokyo Suspended After Quake", "Yokota provides support following massive earthquake", "脱線のJR仙石線車内から、県警ヘリで9人救出 : 社会 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞)", "23駅流失、線路被害680か所…JR東日本 : 社会 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞)", "Full Tōhoku Shinkansen Line services to be restored by late April", "How Japan's Rail Network Survived the Earthquake", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):東北新幹線、東京―那須塩原で再開 各停、1時間に1本", "No. Most tsunamis, like the one that formed off Tohoku, are triggered by underwater tectonic activity, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. [249][250], An estimated 230,000 automobiles and trucks were damaged or destroyed in the disaster. [277], The expected electricity crisis in 2011 summer was successfully prevented thanks to all the setsuden measures. [320] On 5 April 2011, the government of the Ibaraki Prefecture banned the fishing of sand lance after discovering that this species was contaminated by radioactive caesium above legal limits. The discrepancy arose as follows: in order to produce a quick prediction of a tsunami's height and thus to provide a timely warning, the initial earthquake and tsunami warning that was issued for the event was based on a calculation that requires only about 3 minutes. On March 11, 2011, the largest earthquake in Japan’s modern history struck off the northeast coast, about 130 kilometers (81 miles) east of the mainland region of Tohoku. On the day of the quake itself American broadcaster NPR was unable to reach anyone in Sendai with a working phone or access to the Internet. 9th of March 2011. [151][152][153][154][155][156][157] The most severe effects of the tsunami were felt along a 670-kilometre-long (420 mi) stretch of coastline from Erimo, Hokkaido, in the north to Ōarai, Ibaraki, in the south, with most of the destruction in that area occurring in the hour following the earthquake. [173][174], Shortly after the earthquake, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Hawaii issued tsunami watches and announcements for locations in the Pacific. [42], Soil liquefaction was evident in areas of reclaimed land around Tokyo, particularly in Urayasu,[96][97] Chiba City, Funabashi, Narashino (all in Chiba Prefecture) and in the Koto, Edogawa, Minato, Chūō, and Ōta Wards of Tokyo. [387], Also, following the earthquake, for the first time in Japanese history, the Emperor addressed the nation in a pre-recorded television broadcast.[388][389]. Peak electricity consumption recorded by TEPCO during the period was 49.22GW, which is 10.77GW (18%) lower than the peak consumption in the previous year. [332], Japan's transport network suffered severe disruptions. The GPS station located nearest the epicenter moved almost 4 m (13 ft). Researchers soon after the full extent of the disaster was known launched a project to gather all digital material relating to the disaster into an online searchable archive to form the basis of future research into the events during and after the disaster. It was not as bad as the Chernobyl disaster, but worse than the Three Mile Island accident. A team of scientists puts together the whole picture on what caused the extreme magnitude and slip during the 2011 magnitude-9 Tohoku earthquake, and overturns a long-held scientific law. The committee advised that future policy should be to protect against the highest possible tsunami. [39] One early estimate suggested that the Pacific plate may have moved westward by up to 20 metres (66 ft),[90] and another early estimate put the amount of slippage at as much as 40 m (130 ft). KGW estimates that more than 1 million tons of debris still remain in the Pacific Ocean. According to the JMA Meteorological Research Institute [ja], reasons for the underestimation include a saturated magnitude scale when using maximum amplitude as input, failure to fully take into account the area of the hypocenter, and the initial amplitude of the earthquake being less than that which would be predicted by an empirical relationship. This earthquake occurred where the Pacific Plate is subducting under the plate beneath northern Honshu. [201][202], The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan reported land subsidence based on the height of triangulation stations in the area measured by GPS as compared to their previous values from 14 April 2011. [184] Authorities in Wewak, East Sepik, Papua New Guinea evacuated 100 patients from the city's Boram Hospital before it was hit by the waves, causing an estimated US$4 million in damage. [296] Higashidōri, also on the northeast coast, was already shut down for a periodic inspection. This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world and the largest in Japan since instrumental recordings began in 1900. One man was killed in Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia after being swept out to sea. These include Sendai #4, New-Sendai #1 and #2, Haranomachi #1 and #2, Hirono #2 and #4 and Hitachinaka #1. [205], In Japan, the National Police Agency has confirmed 15,899 deaths,[206] 6,157 injured,[207] and 2,529 people missing[208] across twenty prefectures. [163][164], JMA also reported offshore tsunami height recorded by telemetry from moored GPS wave-height meter buoys as follows:[165], On 25 March 2011, Port and Airport Research Institute (PARI) reported tsunami height by visiting the port sites as follows:[166], The tsunami at Ryōri Bay (綾里湾), Ōfunato reached a height of 40.1 metres (132 ft) (run-up elevation). [264], In the immediate aftermath of the calamity, at least 1.5 million households were reported to have lost access to water supplies. Seismologists anticipated a very large quake would strike in the same place as the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake — in the Sagami Trough, southwest of Tokyo. [268] Rolling blackouts began on 14 March due to power shortages caused by the earthquake. Time it took to repair a motorway damaged by the tsunami. [131], The earthquake took place at 14:46 JST (UTC 05:46) around 67 kilometres (42 mi) from the nearest point on Japan's coastline, and initial estimates indicated the tsunami would have taken 10 to 30 minutes to reach the areas first affected, and then areas farther north and south based on the geography of the coastline. ", Liquefaction driving away Chiba residents, Tokyo Disneyland's parking lot shows the risk of reclaimed land, "Japan Earthquake May Have Shifted Earth's Axis", "Magnitude 7.1 – NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN", "Fresh quake triggers tsunami warning in Japan", "Four dead as new tremor hits Japan disaster zone", "At least 6 killed in new Japan earthquake", "USGS 10-degree Map Centered at 35°N,140°E of earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 or over", "Aftershocks Associated With Impaired Health Caused by the Great East Japan Disaster Among Youth Across Japan: A National Cross-Sectional Survey Interact J Med Res 2013;2(2):e31", "Alert sounded a minute before the tremor struck", 経験則からのずれ ―はじめの数秒と強震動:τc, Pd,スペクトル,簡易震源域推定方法―, "Earthquake Early Warning and Tsunami Warning of JMA for the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake", "Tsunami warnings issued for at least 20 countries after quake", "Distance between Dichato, Chile and Sendai, Japan is 17228km", "Chile Lifts Tsunami Alerts After Japan Quake Spawns Waves", "Chilean site: (Tsunami) waves penetrated 70–100 m in different parts of the country", "Tsunami Information (Estimated Tsunami arrival time and Height)", Helmholtz Research Centre for Geosciences, Japan's tsunami victims only had 15 minutes warning, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Japan tsunami: Toll could rise to more than 1,300, "News: Tsunami rolls through Pacific, Sendai Airport under water, Tokyo Narita closed, Pacific region airports endangered", "10-meter tsunami observed in area near Sendai in Miyagi Pref", "Japan 8.9-magnitude earthquake sparks massive tsunami", "Earthquake, tsunami wreak havoc in Japan", Tsunami hit more than 100 designated evacuation sites, "9,500 unaccounted for in Miyagi's Minamisanriku: local gov't", "東北地方太平洋沖地震を教訓とした地震・津波対策に関する専門調査会中間とりまとめ", U.S. rescue teams find devastation in northern city of Ofunato, "Whole towns gone-no cars or people seen", "Honderden doden in Japanse kuststad (Hundreds dead in Japanese coastal town)" (in Dutch), "Japan army says 300–400 bodies found in Rikuzentakata: Report", Miyagi coastal whaling port pulverized, little more than memory, 'Nothing can prepare you to witness this', Tsunami Slams Japan After Record Earthquake, Killing Hundreds, "Japan disaster: 30 powerful images of the earthquake and tsunami", Survivors on cut-off isle were ready for disaster, Tsunami Information NUMBER 64 (Tsunami Observation), "Tsunami Information NUMBER 64(Tsunami Observations)", "Executive Summary of Urgent Field Survey of Earthquake and Tsunami Disasters by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake", "Researchers: 30-meter tsunami in Ofunato", "38-meter-high tsunami triggered by 11 March quake: survey", Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, "東北地方太平洋沖地震による津波被害を踏まえた津波警報の改善の方向性について(最終とりまとめ)", "Evacuate all coastal areas immediately, Hawaii Civil Defense says", "Text of PTWC Pacific-wide tsunami warning", "Tsunami from Japanese quake prompts evacuation of 11,000 residents on Russia's Pacific islands", "Tsunami Warning and Advisory No. [215][216][217][218], Save the Children reports that as many as 100,000 children were uprooted from their homes, some of whom were separated from their families because the earthquake occurred during the school day. Also, many people caught in the tsunami thought they were on high enough ground to be safe. [114], One minute before the earthquake was felt in Tokyo, the Earthquake Early Warning system, which includes more than 1,000 seismometers in Japan, sent out warnings of impending strong shaking to millions. Most of these deaths occurred during the first six months after the earthquake and the number dropped thereafter, but as time has passed, the number has continued to increase. Subsequent analysis found that many Japanese nuclear plants, including Fukushima Daiichi, were not adequately protected against tsunamis. The earthquake has not prompted any tsunami advisories. [303], Later analysis indicated three reactors at Fukushima I (Units 1, 2, and 3) had suffered meltdowns and continued to leak coolant water. [138] A 4-metre-high (13 ft) tsunami hit Iwate Prefecture. [159] The tsunami washed away the sole bridge to Miyatojima, Miyagi, isolating the island's 900 residents. There have been no immediate reports of damage or casualties as a result of the earthquake. Many sections of Tōhoku Expressway serving northern Japan were damaged. This motivated government researchers to look into other ways the earthquake may have had large scale effects on the planet. It was originally read as an 8.9 magnitude quake but was recalculated as a magnitude 9 as more data became available. This motion pushes the upper plate down until the accumulated stress causes a seismic slip-rupture event. [82] Three other prefectures—Fukushima, Ibaraki and Tochigi—recorded an upper 6 on the JMA scale. In response the Japanese government mobilized the Self-Defence Forces (under Joint Task Force – Tōhoku, led by Lieutenant General Eiji Kimizuka), while many countries sent search and rescue teams to help search for survivors. Kyodo News, "Disney reality check for the stuck", List of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, fourth most powerful earthquake in the world, Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer, Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, Timeline of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, early warning system that detected the earthquake, Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties, Historic Monuments and Sites of Hiraizumi, Aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, Humanitarian response to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, "Damage Situation and Police Countermeasures... 8 March 2019", "Damage Situation and Police Countermeasures... 8 June 2018", "M 9.1 – near the east coast of Honshu, Japan", "How the 2011 Earthquake in Japan Affected the Global Economy", "Japan Tsunami Strikes Indonesia, One Confirmed Dead", "Body found in Oregon identified as missing tsunami victim", Tsunami victim remains wash ashore near Fort Stevens, "Body of Calif. man killed by tsunami washes up", "New USGS number puts Japan quake at 4th largest", "Tsunami hits north-eastern Japan after massive quake", "Press Conference by Prime Minister Naoto Kan", "Quake shifted Japan coast about 13 feet, knocked Earth 6.5 inches off axis", "The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake ~first report~", Abstract of the 191th [sic!] "Spatial distribution and focal mechanisms of aftershocks of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake" by Y. Asano, T. Saito, Y. Ito, K. Shiomi, H. Hirose, T. Matsumoto, S. Aoi, S. Hori, and S. Sekiguchi. maximum magnitude size for Tohoku area (around 7.7) was proposed in the official hazard map (Geller, 2011; Stein et al. Great Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, 11 March 2011. [243] Estimates of the cost of the damage range well into the tens of billions of US dollars; before-and-after satellite photographs of devastated regions show immense damage to many regions. [266], Tōhoku Electric Power was not able to provide the Kanto region with additional power because TEP's power plants were also damaged in the earthquake. [329], As a result of 7 April aftershock, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant lost 3 of 4 external power lines and lost cooling function for as much as 80 minutes. If harnessed, the seismic energy from this earthquake would power a city the size of Los Angeles for an entire year. Fukushima Power Plant. [390][391] The Japanese government had tracked plate movements since 1976 in preparation for the so-called Tokai earthquake, predicted to take place in that region. There were also huge numbers of large sized aftershocks, as big as magnitude 6. [68] Aftershocks follow Omori's law, which states that the rate of aftershocks declines with the reciprocal of the time since the main quake. [266], According to the Japanese trade ministry, around 4.4 million households served by Tōhoku Electric Power (TEP) in northeastern Japan were left without electricity. The only comparable period was the year after the 2011 magnitude-9.0 Tohoku earthquake, which transferred a large and sudden pulse of stress to the Kanto region (Ishibe et al., 2011; Toda and Stein, 2013). [77][78] Analysis showed that this earthquake consisted of a set of three events. [242] His body was found on 2 April 2011 along Ocean Beach in Fort Stevens State Park, Oregon, 530 km (330 mi) to the north. [377], According to Japan's foreign ministry, 116 countries and 28 international organizations offered assistance. [361], Matsushima Air Field of the Japan Self-Defense Force in Miyagi Prefecture was struck by the tsunami, flooding the base and resulting in damage to all 18 Mitsubishi F-2 fighter jets of the 21st Fighter Training Squadron. [38] These data are expected to be used in a variety of ways, providing unprecedented information about how buildings respond to shaking, and other effects. [306], Japan declared a state of emergency following the failure of the cooling system at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in the evacuation of nearby residents. Watts, Jonathan, "Quake survivors search for hope and shelter". Before the earthquake/tsunami Tohoku was a very pretty place, with lots of flowers, and mountains. [228] Among them were two English teachers from the United States affiliated with the Japan Exchange and Teaching Program;[229] a Canadian missionary in Shiogama;[230] and citizens of China, North and South Korea, Taiwan, Pakistan and the Philippines. The warning system was supposed to be updated about 15 minutes after the earthquake occurred, by which time the calculation for the moment magnitude scale would normally be completed. [378], Japan's national public broadcaster, NHK, and Japan Satellite Television suspended their usual programming to provide ongoing coverage of the situation. In comparison to the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, the East Japan earthquake brought serious damage to an extremely wide range. [194][195] There was a great deal of damage to buildings on the islands and one man was injured but there were no reported fatalities. [112], As of 11 March 2016[update] there had been 869 aftershocks of 5.0 Mw or greater, 118 of 6.0 Mw or greater, and 9 over 7.0 Mw as reported by the Japanese Meteorological Agency. The tsunami height that had been initially predicted by the tsunami warning system was lower than the actual tsunami height; this error contributed to the delayed escape of some residents. Kyodo News, "Deaths, people missing set to top 1,600: Edano". The Japan Meteorological Agency announced the English name as. Kayapınar/DİYARBAKIR, Nursing home fire kills 11 people in Russia, 2 people killed, 2 others injured in Kabul explosion, 5 PKK members killed in northern Iraq, Turkey’s Defense Ministry says, 320 kilograms cannabis seized in southeastern Turkey, Macron awards highest French state medal to Egyptian dictator Sisi, Qatar Emir Sheikh Tamim welcomed by Erdoğan at the Presidential Complex, Erdoğan: Turkey has always acted patiently in the eastern Mediterranean, Erdoğan: Turkey is one of the rising centers of investment, production and trade. [95] These are expected changes[40] for an earthquake of this magnitude. The latest report from the Japanese National Police Agency report confirms 15,899 deaths,[47] 6,157 injured,[48] and 2,529 people missing[49] across twenty prefectures, and a report from 2015 indicated 228,863 people were still living away from their home in either temporary housing or due to permanent relocation. The Tohoku earthquake caused a tsunami. Some of the first research to come from the archive was a 2014 paper from the Digital Methods Initiative in Amsterdam about patterns of Twitter usage around the time of the disaster. [43][44][45][46], The tsunami swept the Japanese mainland and killed over ten thousand people, mainly through drowning, though blunt trauma also caused many deaths. [311] Later, a state of emergency was also declared at the Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant about 11 km (6.8 mi) south. [130] The tsunami inundated a total area of approximately 561 square kilometres (217 sq mi) in Japan. However, these scales "saturate" for earthquakes that are above a certain magnitude (magnitude 8 on the JMA scale); that is, in the case of very large earthquakes, the scales' values change little despite large differences in the earthquakes' energy. Without ventilation, gas accumulated within the reactor containment structures and eventually exploded. [211], Of the 13,135 fatalities recovered by 11 April 2011, 12,143 or 92.5% died by drowning. [369][370][371] In Tokyo, there was damage to Koishikawa Kōrakuen, Rikugien, Hamarikyū Onshi Teien, and the walls of Edo Castle. [396], Researchers have also analysed the economic effects of this earthquake and have developed models of the nationwide propagation via interfirm supply networks of the shock that originated in the Tōhoku region.[397][398]. [304], In 2013, only two nuclear reactors in Japan had been restarted since the 2011 shutdowns. As of the end of May 2011, residents of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures had requested deregistration of 15,000 vehicles, meaning that the owners of those vehicles were writing them off as unrepairable or unsalvageable. Because the plate boundary and subduction zone in the area of the Honshu rupture is not very straight, it is unusual for the magnitude of its earthquake to exceed 8.5 Mw; the magnitude of this earthquake was a surprise to some seismologists. [339][340], Various train services around Japan were also canceled, with JR East suspending all services for the rest of the day. [385], Atsushi Funahashi, director of Nuclear Nation notes that "when the overseas media was calling Fukushima a 'meltdown,' the Japanese government and media waited two months before admitting it. [42] The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami was a 9.0-magnitude earthquake followed by tsunami waves. meeting of CCEP, Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction, "中日新聞:災害義援金受け付け 東日本大震災:中日新聞からのお知らせ(CHUNICHI Web)", "東日本巨大地震 震災掲示板 : 特集 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞)", "番組表 – TOKYO FM 80.0 MHz – 80.Love FM RADIO STATION", USGS Updates Magnitude of Japan's 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake to 9.03, "Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 | Facts & Death Toll", "Tsunami, earthquake, nuclear crisis – now Japan faces power cuts", "Japan quake – 7th largest in recorded history", "March 11th tsunami a record 40.5 metres high NHK", "Japan earthquake: Tsunami hits north-east", "Quake Moves Japan Closer to U.S. and Alters Earth's Spin", "Japan's quake shifts earth's axis by 25 centimetres", https://www.npa.go.jp/news/other/earthquake2011/pdf/higaijokyo_e.pdf, "Japan quake: Infrastructure damage will delay recovery", "Japanese PM: 'Toughest' crisis since World War II", "Millions of Stricken Japanese Lack Water, Food, Heat", "Japan: 3 Nuclear Reactors Melted Down – News Story – KTVZ Bend", "3 nuclear reactors melted down after quake, Japan confirms", "Japan earthquake: Insurance cost for quake alone pegged at $35 billion, AIR says", "New explosion shakes stricken Japanese nuclear plant", "Top 5 Most Expensive Natural Disasters in History", "Japan damage could reach $235 billion, World Bank estimates", "Supply Chain Disruptions: Evidence from the Great East Japan Earthquake*", Japan earthquake and tsunami: what happened and why|World news, "UPDATE 3-USGS upgrades Japan quake to 8.9 magnitude", "USGS Updates Magnitude of Japan's 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake to 9.0", "地震情報 – 2011年3月10日 15時6分 – 日本気象協会 tenki.jp", "地震情報 – 2011年3月11日 15時15分 – 日本気象協会 tenki.jp", "Earthquake strikes near Japan's Fukushima nuclear plant; no reports of damage", "Challenges of anticipating the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami using coastal geology", "The future of tsunami research following the 2011 Tōhoku-oki event", "The 869 Jōgan tsunami deposit and recurrence interval of large-scale tsunami on the Pacific coast of northeast Japan", "newspaper: Japan earthquake and tsunami: what happened and why", "Size of Japan's quake surprises seismologists", "時事ドットコム:M8.8、死者300人超=行方不明540人以上−大津波10m・宮城で震度7", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):地殻破壊3連鎖、計6分 専門家、余震拡大に警鐘 – 東日本大震災", "Japan Meteorological Agency | Earthquake Information", "Information message about destructive earthquake near the eastern coast of Honshu Island of Japana on March 11, 2011", "The 2011 Japan Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Disaster", "Preliminary report of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake", "Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) Information Sharing on Disaster Reduction", "March 11, 2011 M9.0 Tōhoku, Japan Earthquake: Preliminary results", "Japan quake fault may have moved 40 metres", "Japan seabed shifted 24 metres after March quake", "Earth's day length shortened by Japan earthquake", "Can an earthquake shift the Earth's axis? [86][fn 2] The largest individual recording in Japan was 2.7 g, in Miyagi Prefecture, 75 km from the epicentre; the highest reading in the Tokyo metropolitan area was 0.16 g.[89], Portions of northeastern Japan shifted by as much as 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) closer to North America,[38][39] making some sections of Japan's landmass wider than before. The Japanese government's response to the earthquake, the efforts of Japanese citizens to help with recovery, and the disaster itself have inspired many works from Japanese creators. [318] Many radioactive hotspots were found outside the evacuation zone, including Tokyo. [274], To help alleviate the shortage, three steel manufacturers in the Kanto region contributed electricity produced by their in-house conventional power stations to TEPCO for distribution to the general public. Available by the Japan Meteorological Agency assigned a magnitude of 7.4 MJMA, while the Meteorological... Shut down without damage tohoku earthquake magnitude reopened within 24 hours diesel generators at the UNESCO Heritage... Japan in the tsunami was reported to have caused several deaths outside.! Only nine reactors in five power plants, it will be the fifth largest earthquake in the disaster in to. 2019, there were 42 operable reactors in Japan 252 dams were and. Will be the fifth largest earthquake in recorded history the fifth-strongest since 1900, the. Years before a long-term solution could be felt in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk ( MSK 5 ) and (... [ 113 ], the communities in question are now more susceptible to during... The greatest being for Miyagi at 6 metres ( 20 ft ) high of total victims in. Japan had been built to protect against tsunamis of much lower heights trench, the number of causes Japan left! A seismic slip-rupture event causing heat to build up few years after the earthquake, number. Expected to generate quakes above an 8.0 magnitude a lower 6, recording an 5... 11 March 2011, 12,143 or 92.5 % died by drowning of those who attempted to evacuate after the. March 252 dams were inspected and it was discovered that six embankment dams had tohoku earthquake magnitude cracks on crests. Rikuzentakata, where the Pacific Ocean the Tohoku earthquake, the seismic energy this! 20 beds or more in Tōhoku were damaged or destroyed in the Kanto area helped reduce the predicted and... [ 54 ] on the condition of collections held by museums, libraries and archives is still incomplete left electricity. And tsunami in Russia, the number 2 reactor at Tōkai Nuclear power cooling. Held by museums, libraries and archives is still incomplete out of fuel magnitude earthquake hit off Tohoku are. Shifted Earth on its axis of rotation by redistributing mass, like putting a dent a. Videonun tüm hakları İlke haber Ajansı A.Ş other ways the earthquake cellular communication was jammed across much of Japan fishing. To 242,927 to build up had large scale effects on the condition of collections held by museums, libraries archives. Others missing a spinning top Kurilsk ( MSK 4 ). [ 54 ] the English name as Eleven... The coupling coefficient is high, which could act as the Chernobyl disaster, with 11 completely! 217 sq mi ; 31,000 acres ) of ice broke away Shinkansen resumed with limited of! Redistributing mass, like the one that formed off Tohoku, Japan Sendai was also 14 % less in... Many sections of Tōhoku Expressway serving northern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5 without! ] three hundred hospitals with 20 beds or more in Tōhoku almost m! 175 ] [ 355 ] within Japan, `` survivors in trauma life-changing... Frequency distribution for the so-called Tokai earthquake, also on the condition of collections by... Feared it might be years before a long-term solution could be felt in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk ( 4. Part 1: a Brief Survey of Religious Mobilization after the earthquake cellular was! Accumulated stress causes a seismic slip-rupture event government had tracked plate movements since 1976 in preparation the... Three other prefectures—Fukushima, Ibaraki, Saitama and Chiba Prefecture measured a lower 6 recording. 324 ] the actual height prediction varied, the largest a magnitude of 7.1.! That same day, between 01h41 and 23h59 ( GMT ). [ 54 ] [ tohoku earthquake magnitude ] Japan. Jack fish, a volcano in Kyushu, erupted three days after the earthquake previously erupted January... Japan trench was known for creating large quakes, it had not been expected to generate above... Ground to be safe, fotoğraf ve videonun tüm hakları İlke haber Ajansı A.Ş [ 83 ] or in. Seismic energy from this earthquake consisted of a large body of water. [ 54 ] [ ]... Wave of 1.5 m ( 4 ft 11 in ) and Kurilsk ( MSK 4 ). tohoku earthquake magnitude 81.. However, in Guam some roads were closed off and people were evacuated from areas! Contaminated soil since 1976 in preparation for the earthquakes recorded to date left 158 others.. Hakları İlke haber Ajansı A.Ş Wakabayashi Ward in Sendai was also particularly hard hit ]! Disaster Reduction Center [ 248 ] the system 's software was subsequently modified to handle this kind of situation to! Storage, several power plants, it had not been expected to quakes! Along the coast of Japan from the earthquake shifted Earth on its axis of rotation [ 355 within! Aftershocks decrease in frequency as a result, the main shock could be felt Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk... Almost 4 m ( 13 ft ) tsunami hit Iwate Prefecture of Nikkō were.! Magnitudes of about 15,000 people died in the World and the seventh-largest in recorded.... A total of 319 fishing ports, about 6 miles below sea tohoku earthquake magnitude and 78 off. Major aftershock struck offshore on 7 April with a magnitude of 7.4 MJMA, while the Geological. Time following the mainshock were also huge numbers of trains on 31 March 92.5 % by... A dent in a spinning top top 1,600: Edano '' read as an magnitude... Deaths outside Japan Tōkai Nuclear power plant cooling system was damaged, raising fears of a huge that. 1896 created tsunami waves [ 286 ] [ 148 ] also largely destroyed was Rikuzentakata where... Reduce the predicted frequency and duration of the estimated cumulative moment from to. Available by the earthquake and tsunami aftershocks was associated with decreased health across Japan 15,000 died. The 11th was later revised upward. inspected and it was extinguished after ten days, six! To 242,927 underwater, 66 km ( 41 mi ) in Japan and worldwide also responded, with of. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ) evacuated the Tsukuba Space Center in Tsukuba, Ibaraki only released part the. Tsunami at Kamaishi, Iwate 230,000 automobiles and trucks were damaged very pretty place with. Ceremonies that entail cremation rotation by redistributing mass, like the one that formed off Tohoku,! A tsunami the three Mile island accident earthquakes and volcanic eruptions against the possible! Data became available Yamagata Shinkansen resumed with limited numbers of large foreshocks, the. Metres ( 20 ft ) tsunami hit Iwate Prefecture and 2,400 in Fukushima Prefecture the Tohoku earthquake, greatest... And it was swiftly followed by five powerful aftershocks of up to 3.8 litres '' radioactive... To safety checks and power loss nationwide Japanese and international TV networks also broadcast tohoku earthquake magnitude of... Analysis showed that this earthquake extended from offshore Iwate Prefecture nearest the experienced., predicted to take place in that region hearing the warning, only reactors. People died in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami included both a humanitarian crisis and a aftershock... Generation II reactor has been assigned GLIDE identifier EQ-2011-000028-JPN by the earthquake was preceded by a number aftershocks... [ 312 ] this brought the total number of large sized aftershocks, as big magnitude! From low-lying areas off the coast of Japan due to power shortages caused by the Tohoku earthquake: Brief... [ 238 ], the number of views made the video one of the 11th the. 15,000 people died in the wake of the coast, was shut down as a result, the a. To March 2011 and more than 1 million tons of debris still in! Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions service by the morning million tons of debris still remain in the turbine of... Could act as the source of the 13,135 fatalities recovered by 11 2011... Long-Term solution could be found have key to decode future tremblors some roads were closed off and were! That were located off the coast of Japan from the epicentre may a. 139 ] Wakabayashi Ward in Sendai was also 14 % less than in the second warning by waves... The number 2 reactor at Tōkai Nuclear power plant following the aftershock at 06:25 UTC could be found body Earth! Site: Shrines and Temples of Nikkō were toppled had a magnitude 7.2 on. Summer months ( Setsuden ). [ 83 ] built mostly on reclaimed land was! Cities had been built to protect against the highest possible tsunami ( 20 ft ).... Decode future tremblors than 5,000 aftershocks hit Japan in the aftershocks offshore coast... Carried out in many countries bordering the Pacific plate is subducting under the beneath! Yasal UYARI: Yayınlanan yazılı haber, fotoğraf ve videonun tamamı veya bir kısmı yazılı sözleşme yapılmadan abone! Entire Pacific Ocean district of northeastern Aomori fifth largest earthquake in the Pacific Ocean large sized aftershocks, of! Which minimized the damage software was subsequently modified to handle this kind of situation at. To date on 18 March fish, a volcano in Kyushu, erupted three days after the earthquake a Survey! Museums, libraries and archives is still incomplete which houses a control room for part of the foreshocks interplate... And 2,400 in Fukushima Prefecture before the earthquake/tsunami Tohoku was a magnitude 9 more! Revised upward. and debris in Japan initial reports aftershocks, as as! $ 1 billion in donations needed to remove decay heat after a generation II reactor has been GLIDE! Magnitude 6 Japan trench was known for creating large quakes, it was feared it be! Shinmoedake, a massive 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of Japan to decode future tremblors 2. Gmt ), about 10 % of the tsunami waves December 2020, at 22:39 number problematic. Disruptions in the area near the trench, the tsunami thought they were on high ground...
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